Scholars of the Centre for Ethics stipends in 2003/2004 | University of Tartu Centre of Ethics

Contacts of UT units

Faculty of Arts and Humanities
Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5341
Faculty address: 
Jakobi 2, rooms 116–121, 51005 Tartu
  • Dean's Office
    Faculty phone: 
    + 372 737 5341
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, rooms 116–121, 51005 Tartu
  • Institute of History and Archaeology
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5651
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51005 Tartu
  • Institute of Estonian and General Linguistics
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5221
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, 51005 Tartu
  • Institute of Philosophy and Semiotics
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5314
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 2, rooms 309–352, 51005 Tartu
  • Institute of Cultural Research
    Faculty phone: 
    (+372) 737 5223
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 16, 51003 Tartu
  • School of Theology and Religious Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5301
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18–310, 50090 Tartu
  • College of Foreign Languages and Cultures
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, 51003 Tartu
  • Viljandi Culture Academy
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 435 5232
    Faculty address: 
    Posti 1, 71004 Viljandi
Faculty of Social Sciences
Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5957
Faculty address: 
Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu
  • Dean's Office
    Faculty phone: 
    + 372 737 5900
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu
  • Institute of Education
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6440
    Faculty address: 
    Salme 1a–29, 50103 Tartu
  • Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5582
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36–301, 51003 Tartu
  • School of Economics and Business Administration
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6310
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 4, 50409 Tartu
  • Institute of Psychology
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5902
    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 2, 50409 Tartu
  • School of Law
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5390
    Faculty address: 
    Näituse 20–324, 50409 Tartu
  • Institute of Social Studies
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5188
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 36, 51003 Tartu
  • Narva College
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 740 1900
    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 2, 20307 Narva
  • Pärnu College
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 445 0520
    Faculty address: 
    Ringi 35, 80012 Pärnu
Faculty of Medicine
Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5326
Faculty address: 
Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu
  • Dean's Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5326
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4210
    Faculty address: 
    Biomeedikum, Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Pharmacy
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5286
    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Dentistry
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 731 9856
    Faculty address: 
    Raekoja plats 6, 51003 Tartu
  • Institute of Clinical Medicine
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5323
    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 8, 50406 Tartu
  • Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4190
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 19, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5360
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 5–205, 51005 Tartu
Faculty of Science and Technology
Faculty phone: 
+372 737 5820
Faculty address: 
Vanemuise 46–208, 51014 Tartu
  • Dean's Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5820
    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46–208, 51005 Tartu
  • Institute of Computer Science
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5445
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409 Tartu
  • Estonian Marine Institute
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 671 8902
    Faculty address: 
    Mäealuse 14, 12618 Tallinn
  • Institute of Physics
    Faculty address: 
    W. Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Chemistry
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5261
    Faculty address: 
    Ravila 14a, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Mathematics and Statistics
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5860
    Faculty address: 
    J. Liivi 2, 50409 Tartu
  • Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5011
    Faculty address: 
    Riia 23, 23b–134, 51010 Tartu
  • Tartu Observatory
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4510
    Faculty address: 
    Observatooriumi 1, Tõravere, 61602 Tartumaa
  • Institute of Technology
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4800
    Faculty address: 
    Nooruse 1, 50411 Tartu
  • Institute of Ecology and Earth Sciences
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5835
    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46, 51003 Tartu
Institutions
  • Library
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5702
    Faculty address: 
    W. Struve 1, 50091 Tartu
  • Youth Academy
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5581
    Faculty address: 
    Uppsala 10, 51003 Tartu
  • Institute of Genomics
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 4000
    Faculty address: 
    Riia 23b, 51010 Tartu
  • Museum
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5674
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 25, 51003 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Natural History Museum and Botanical Garden
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6076
    Faculty address: 
    Vanemuise 46, 51003 Tartu
Support Units
  • Administrative Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5606
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu
  • Centre for Entrepreneurship and Innovation
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6339
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, III floor, 51003 Tartu
  • University Office in Tallinn
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6600
    Faculty address: 
    Teatri väljak 3, 10143 Tallinn
  • Estates Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5137
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu
  • Finance Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5125
    Faculty address: 
    Jakobi 4, 51005 Tartu
  • Grant Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6215
    Faculty address: 
    Lossi 3, III floor, 51003 Tartu
  • Information Technology Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6000, IT-help: +372 737 5500
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu
  • Human Resources Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5145
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, rooms 302 and 304, 50090 Tartu
  • Internal Audit Office
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 17–103, 51005 Tartu
  • Marketing and Communication Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5687
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, rooms 102, 104, 209, 210, 50090 Tartu
  • Office of Academic Affairs
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5620
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu
  • Procurement Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 6632
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18a, 51005 Tartu
  • Rector's Strategy Office
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5600
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu
  • Student Council
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5400
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18b, 51005 Tartu
Other Units
  • University of Tartu Academic Sports Club
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5371
    Faculty address: 
    Ujula 4, 51008 Tartu
  • Tartu Student Village
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 740 9959
    Faculty address: 
    Narva mnt 25, 51013 Tartu
  • Tartu Students’ Club
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 730 2400
    Faculty address: 
    Kalevi 24, 51010 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Press
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5945
    Faculty address: 
    W. Struve 1, 50091 Tartu
  • Tartu University Hospital
    Faculty address: 
    L. Puusepa 1a, 50406 Tartu
  • University of Tartu Foundation
    Faculty phone: 
    +372 737 5852
    Faculty address: 
    Ülikooli 18, 50090 Tartu
  • View all other units

Scholars of the Centre for Ethics stipends in 2003/2004

Marek Järvik (philosophy). “Norms and Action: How Moral and Legal Duties Affect Our Action“

The question which has attracted me lately is: ‘what is the basis of moral motivation’. I have phrased that problem as follows– ‘what is the core of our moral behavior’. By rephrasing the problem we can get to a new formulation - ‘why we ought to be moral’. It is widely accepted by philosophers that the answer is a matter of normativity. A problem of normativity is a query for a reason of action. We are bounded with normatives in all cases where we make decisions. There are always different imperatives, believes, descriptions etc which influence our judgements. So it is right to say that reasoning is inherently normative, because this is the process of choosing between normatives where everyone has potential prescriptive power.

How are normatives and moral motivation related? For explanation it is useful to find a general formulation of decision-making. As I mentioned above, reasoning is a deliberation process between normatives. Here it is natural to suppose that a preferred normative gives a reason for action. The query why any normative is preferred is of course a matter of fact and depends entirely on particular circumstances. We can give an answer to that question if we have access to personal properties like dispositions and beliefs. Although it seems to be quite easy to get information about decision-making, it is nevertheless complicated in practice and that is so even on first person’s position. I mean that there are cases possible where even the first person couldn’t explain her reason of action. It would be naïve to suppose that practical reasoning has been guided only by rational principles. People don’t stay always rational and sometimes do what they ought not to. It happens not only when they cannot choose between normatives but also when they have a favourable one that they don’t follow. Does it imply that reasoning does not fit under a general formulation? I argued that there could not be a general substantial formulation of reasoning. But I believe that there would be a general formal formulation of reasoning.

My solution is quite trivial. If we remove all substantives in the case of reasoning we get a general formulation ‘if P then Q’. ‘P’ is substitution for all substantive conditions. ‘Q’ refers to results of deliberation processes. By eliminating indexical characteristics we get tautology ‘if there is a process of reasoning then it implies to a reason of action’. I mean that whatever is a matter of deliberation it necessarily implies a reason of action. Moreover, it is clear that an action-guiding reason is somehow preferred by an agent. This matches with the general idea of reasoning.

‘What motivates people to be moral?’ There would be several reasons to be moral. Let’s say, for example, that p is a general reason why any person should be moral. Here we can answer that ‘p does motivate people to be moral’. It is clear, that if p does motivate to be moral, then people have moral motivation because of p. Otherwise, if p does not motivate to be moral and there are not other reasons to be moral, then a person cannot have moral motivation. It has to be clear that if I will ask ‘what is basis of moral motivation’ I am looking for the proper substitution of p. I call it henceforth generally as a principle for morality.

The function of the principle is to define moral obligations. It does not specify anything about moral values. Moral values have different source. But the principle gives an answer to question ‘why we ought to prefer some values to other?’ If the principle were found, we would demarcate moral reasoning. It is a kind of reasoning where from condition ‘if P then Q’, Q would be moral action if an agent took the principle into account.

In my doctoral theses I will try to find a proper substitution for p that has to be justified. Finally I wish to figure out my own position, which will be my attempt to solve the substantial problem of moral reasoning.

 

Kadri Simm (philosophy). „Social Justice and Equal Opportunities in Biomedicine“

The thesis will concentrate on philosophical analysis and application of conceptions of social justice and equal opportunities. The main attention is given to the application of these conceptions in (bio)medicine. I will analyse the doubts and problems rising in connection with the new technologies and with the potential application of the new knowledge in society. The main aim is to explore what are the biomedicine’s possible challenges to the socially accepted principles of justice. How should the society proceed, if through new technologies it has the means to increase the equality of opportunity? How to share the genetic capital (if at all) to diminish suffering and to increase the equal opportunities? Briefly – in which direction should social justice and also the desire and need to guarantee the equal opportunities develop in the environment, where there exists a possibility to smooth the existing inequalities considerably more than historically and currently feasible.

 

Ivo Volt (classical philology). “Lexical and semantic basis of depicting negative character types in Classical Greek literature, and their relation to Greek ethical theory and popular morality"

The thesis deals with what was considered condemnable in a human being at various levels of social communication. Lexical and semantic basis of the study is followed by the analysis of some ethical questions that are inevitably connected with the topic (e.g. the relation of moral philosophy and popular morality in Ancient Greece). Further, various linguistic and rhetorical devices that were used in describing and characterising negative qualities and dispositions are analysed. The basis of the study is formed mainly by three genres: philosophical prose (Plato, Aristotle), practical rhetoric (Attic oratory), and comedy.

 

Aive Pevkur (philosophy). „Decision-making Process in the Field of Continuing and Ending Life. A Philosophical Approach”

The wide recognition of biomedical ethics is gaining popularity in new independent societies. My work in this field is an attempt to enhance the discussion on biomedical ethical dilemmas in modern Estonian society. There is a lack of practical guidelines for the larger society, for medical practitioners and their patients. In looking for possible solutions for problems of ending life and developing an idea of value pluralism in bioethics I hope to give my contribution to the discussion.

 

Leno Saarniit (public administration). “Criticism of Lawcentred Approach of Public Ethics”

During the 20th century the approach to public ethics (ethics of civil service and political ethics) has focused on legal and managerial perspective. Several public ethics scholars focus on following the laws while discussing the morality of certain types of behaviour, and by doing that they seem to equalize law and ethics. Therefore a question is raised: are ethics and law the same. The aim of my thesis is firstly, to critically analyse the law and management centred approach to public ethics and bring out the fading line between law and ethics of this approach. Secondly, the thesis aims at discussing the possible reasons for such development.